B3.2 Coordination and control – the endocrine system
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B3.2 Coordination and control – the endocrine system
BM3.2i extract and interpret data from graphs, charts and tables
BM3.2ii translate information between numerical and graphical forms
B3.2a describe the principles of hormonal coordination and control by the human endocrine system to include use of chemical messengers, transport in blood, endocrine glands and receptors
B3.2b explain the roles of thyroxine and adrenaline in the body as examples of negative feedback systems to include thyroxine as an example of a negative feedback system
B3.2c describe the role of hormones in human reproduction including the control of the menstrual cycle
B3.2d explain the interactions of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the control of the menstrual cycle
B3.2e explain the use of hormones in contraception and evaluate hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception to include the relative effectiveness of the different forms of contraception
To introduce the endocrine system show learners this YouTube video. When complete provide learners with a human body outline and get them to fill in as many glands as possible from the video. After discussing the glands as a class show the video a second time to allow learners to complete the remaining glands. The menstrual cycle is difficult for learners to grasp.
The menstrual cycle activity will hopefully make it easier for learners to understand the role of each hormone in the menstrual cycle. Teachers are to place the sequence of days around the room to get the learners to bring the pieces together. At the end as a group go over the cycle.
When teaching plant hormones the lesson element ‘shoots and roots, exploring the action of auxins on the growth of roots and shoots’ is an excellent starting point that allows learners to work independently and makes it more visual for learners to grasp the concepts.
To make it more visual a paper activity to show how cell elongation leads to bending. Give out 8 pieces of A5 paper. Lay them landscape in two rows (2x4). Tell the learner to rotate the 4 pieces on one side by 90 degrees but that all pieces in the row and two columns have to touch.
Common misconceptions or difficulties students may have
Learners find it difficult to refer to each stage of the menstrual cycle and the role each hormones play. The activity makes it easier for learners to grasp the idea. Also because hormones may not be seen it is useful to use modelling techniques to allow them to visualise it.
A common misconception involves auxins and its behaviour in the shoots and roots. Learners find it difficult to understand that the auxins in the roots and shoots are the same but their behaviour is different. In the roots the auxins prohibit growth and prevent growth in the area they are distributed. However In the shoots they stimulate growth on the regions they are distributed. The shoots and roots lesson element enables learners to model the auxin behaviour and distribution by using beads.
Conceptual links to other areas of the specification – useful ways to approach this topic to set students up for topics later in the course
The knowledge and understanding of ‘The endocrine system’ is ideal before beginning topics such as ‘Maintaining internal environments’. There is little in terms of linking this topic to other topics in the specification.
Approaches to teaching the content
Learners are to get into small groups and produce a 2-minute presentation on what they would do to solve situations where patient’s hormones are affected.
The importance of maintaining an internal environment can be compared to a nuclear power station. If the reaction is too reactive and the temperature is too hot then it can cause the system to fail, rods are placed in to cool it down by slowing the reactions. Too cold and the water does not boil and does not turn the turbines. Similar to the body if it is not maintained then the consequences can be devastating.
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