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Delivery guides are designed to represent a body of knowledge about teaching a particular topic and contain:
- Content: A clear outline of the content covered by the delivery guide;
- Thinking Conceptually: Expert guidance on the key concepts involved, common difficulties students may have, approaches to teaching that can help students understand these concepts and how this topic links conceptually to other areas of the subject;
- Thinking Contextually: A range of suggested teaching activities using a variety of themes so that different activities can be selected which best suit particular classes, learning styles or teaching approaches.
Mathematical learning outcomes:
PM2.1i Recall and apply distance travelled (m) = speed (m/s) x time (s).
PM2.1ii Recall and apply acceleration (m/s2) = change in speed (m/s) / time (s).
PM2.1iii Apply (final velocity (m/s))2 – (initial velocity (m/s))2 = 2 x acceleration (m/s2) x distance (m).
PM2.1iv Recall and apply kinetic energy (J) = 0.5 x mass (kg) x (speed (m/s))2.
Assessable content statements:
P2.1a Describe how to measure distance and time in a range of scenarios.
P2.1b Describe how to measure distance and time and use these to calculate speed.
P2.1c Make calculations using ratios and proportional reasoning to convert units and compute rates.
P2.1d Explain the vector-scalar distinction as it applies to displacement and distance, velocity and speed.
P2.1e Relate changes and differences in motion to appropriate distance-time, and velocity-time graphs, and interpret lines, slopes and enclosed areas in such graphs.
P2.1f interpret enclosed area in velocity-time graphs (M4a, M4b, M4c, M4d, M4f)
P2.1g Calculate average speed for non-uniform motion.
P2.1h Apply formulae relating distance, time and speed, for uniform motion, and for motion with uniform acceleration.
Approaches to teaching the content
The basics tools to describe motion using graphs and the speed = distance x time formula should have been covered at Key Stage 3. Many of the concepts within in this topic, which can be demonstrated through practical work, depend upon conditions being perfect and presuming that friction is negligible. It is a good opportunity to develop graph skills and basic re-arrangement of formulae.
This sub-topic may be a good opportunity to introduce exercises to develop the skill of selecting appropriate apparatus to measure to different levels of precision. Forces and motion covers concepts which are very visible in our everyday lives, providing us with many different contexts to teach them within, allowing us to tailor teaching to the audience.
Common misconceptions or difficulties learners may have
The difference between vector and scalar quantities can pose difficulties in understanding. This can be addressed simply when looking at the difference between displacement-time and velocity-time graphs and what they actually show. Applying this to forces during the next part of this topic may help to reinforce this idea.
Conceptual links to other areas of the specification – useful ways to approach this topic to set learners up for topics later in the course
This topic involves many calculations and interpretation of graphs. It is crucial that these opportunities are well utilised to develop these numeracy skills as learners will be required to use similar skills across many areas of physics.
A useful resource with different examples of distance-time and speed-time graphs which can be used as worked examples or as tasks for learners to complete.
(Free subscription is required to access this resource, paid subscription allows access to further resources).
Approaches to teaching the content
A very simple demonstration to highlight the difference between distance and displacement could be to simply demonstrate it by walking around the classroom and ask learners to consider how far you have walked, as well how far you are from where you started. The idea of displacement being the distance from the original start position and not just the distance travelled can be a little confusing.
Once distance-time, displacement-time and velocity-time graphs have been introduced, develop learners’ literacy by asking them to ‘write the story’ of the journey shown by a graph or by challenging them to describe a journey by drawing a graph of their own. This could be a peer assessed activity and provides the opportunity to use maths.
Learners watch clips of a football game, linking the movement of highlighted players to motion graphs.
There is a corresponding worksheet and a quiz at the end to check understanding. (Subscription is required to access resources but it is free).
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