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Delivery guides are designed to represent a body of knowledge about teaching a particular topic and contain:
- Content: A clear outline of the content covered by the delivery guide;
- Thinking Conceptually: Expert guidance on the key concepts involved, common difficulties students may have, approaches to teaching that can help students understand these concepts and how this topic links conceptually to other areas of the subject;
- Thinking Contextually: A range of suggested teaching activities using a variety of themes so that different activities can be selected which best suit particular classes, learning styles or teaching approaches.
|3.1. What makes a landscape distinctive?||Scale|
|a. What is a landscape?||R, L, F|
|b. Where are the physical landscapes of the UK?||N|
|3.2. What influences the landscapes of the UK?|
|a. What physical processes shape landscapes?||L, F|
|b. What are the characteristics of your chosen landscapes?||R, L, F|
Students will gain an overview of the natural landscapes that the United Kingdom has to offer and unravel the geographical processes that make them distinctive. This topic then allows students to gain a deeper understanding of the geomorphic processes that shape both coastal and river landscapes and consider the human influence on these.
Approaches to teaching the content
- Throughout this topic, there should be a focus upon the keyword, ’distinctive’. It appears in the title and permeates throughout the content. It is intended therefore that there is a focus upon real UK landscapes, landforms and processes, rather than discussion of generic versions.
- As a starting point ‘what is a landscape?’ with consideration of both natural and built landscapes is a good place to begin. This then needs to be set within the context of the UK’s physical landscapes and what makes them distinctive. Since this is an overview, there is no need for detailed case studies, but students must be able to indicate examples for both landscapes and their distinctive characteristics.
- Key elements for students to understand are the geomorphic processes that are involved in shaping landscapes and the formation of coastal and river landforms, whilst showing how they might vary over space and time.
- The main content involves the study of two different, distinctive UK landscapes, one coastal and one river. Key to the successful delivery of both landscapes will be the application of specific geographical knowledge, via detailed reference to case studies.
- Fieldwork is an examinable part of the ‘Our Natural World’ examination paper and this topic provides opportunities to deliver this key aspect, as well as a range of geographical skills.
Common misconceptions or difficulties students may have
- ‘Distinctive’ will be a challenge to some candidates and so some time should be spent focusing upon this word that is key to the whole topic.
- Students often describe rather than explain geomorphic processes and so there is a need for a greater development of how a landform is formed.
- Geology will not be familiar to many. It is important to refer to both the role of geological type and structure.
- Annotation, particularly of sketches and photographs, is a skill that can cause difficulty to many at this level. Why not set tasks that require students to produce all their explanations as annotations for a particular landform?
Conceptual links to other areas of the specification – useful ways to approach this topic to set learners up for topics later in the course
- Both fieldwork and geographical skills are part of the assessment of Our Natural World. Both landscapes (coast and river) could provide opportunity for their delivery. Cartographical skills e.g. relief interpretation and graphical skills e.g. beach cross-sections are examples of other skills that could be delivered.
- 1.1.b requires study of a UK-based natural hazard – if flash flooding is chosen, you could make links to your UK river basin case study if appropriate.
- The study of Plate Tectonics in 1.2 provides some overlap with the characteristics of the UK’s physical landscapes, with former volcanoes prominent in some upland areas.
- Both 5.1 and 5.2 require the study of the built landscape through the study of world cities and megacities with case studies of an AC city and LIDC or EDC city.
- 7.1 requires the study of UK population and its economy, both influenced by the UK’s physical landscape.
- The influence of physical landscape upon food production, mining and water transfer from 8.1, also offers possible links within a UK context and presents distinctive characteristics of such landscapes.
The aim of this activity is to explore the meaning of ‘landscape’ through the exemplar of the School landscape and identify what makes it distinctive.
- The learner or group activity is to produce a spider diagram for the characteristics of their own School landscape. What are its physical, environmental and human characteristics that make it distinctive?
- It is envisaged that relief, vegetation, prominent buildings and major developments will be appropriate to all school landscapes and you may decide to give these headings as guidance. However, personal aspects such as their own tutor base, their favourite subject/ activity or the dining hall are also equally important in establishing what makes up the landscape and should be encouraged.
- A sharing of class ideas should enable a better understanding of what constitutes a landscape and what makes it distinctive by the end of the lesson.
- As a follow up or extension activity learners could apply the principles of what they have learnt to a notable local physical landscape.
The aim of this activity is to identify the distinctive characteristics of the selected UK landscapes.
- Using Learner Resource 2 learners should draw arrows to locate the images with the UK on the map, to gain an initial understanding of where the landscapes are located. Then, with your local landscape photograph displayed, discuss the distinctive characteristics that make up your local landscape, learners should then annotate the local area photograph on Learner Resource 2.
- Using larger A3 versions of each image (Learner Resource 2) split the class into five groups, one for each of the remaining photographs, as a group learners should work together to identify the distinctive characteristics of their allocated landscape.
- Groups can then report back their findings to the rest of the class which can then be added to their own copy of Learner Resource 2.
- To support the development of fieldwork skills, learners could also use the larger versions of Learner Resource 2 to practice their field sketching skills. Get learners to consider the following questions as they complete the activity; if they were out “in the field” what equipment would they need? What human and physical features would they label? What is the purpose of their field sketch and how could it be analysed?
The aim of the activity is to understand the role of geomorphic processes in the formation of headlands, bays, caves, arches and stacks.
- The 'Coastal processes and landforms' clip illustrates the formation of headlands, bays, caves, arches and stacks which can be used as a short introduction to how coastal landscapes develop.
- All learners should name the key features on Learner Resource 3 using the blue hexagons (Learner Resource 3a). To demonstrate higher skill level learners should add more detail by using the green hexagons (Learner Resource 3b) to start trying to explain the formations of the coastal landscapes.
- As a stretch activity learners can use the blue and green hexagons (Learner Resource 3c) to form a paragraph that explains how the coastal landforms are created. The hexagons can be arranged in a logical order and learners can use connectives to build up their paragraph. The hexagons give learners the opportunity to make links between different words and phrases, so learners should be encouraged to make as many links as possible.
- Class or group discussion should follow to develop the full range of geomorphic processes at work upon headlands, including mass movement and weathering, as well as erosion.
The aim of this activity is for learners to research, select what is appropriate and produce a learning resource for a UK coastal landscape.
Learners should be encouraged to adopt a visually attractive format, incorporating bullet points and fully integrated annotated diagrams, maps and photographs, rather than lots of text.
The task for the learners is to produce a learning resource (PowerPoint, Mind Map etc.) that can be shared with the rest of the class, to include the following information:
1. Location of their chosen UK coastal landscape, with appropriate annotated map(s) to include geology. The British Geological Survey provides an excellent starting point for learners to explore.
2. Three selected landforms, shown as annotated photographs, to describe their features and explain the geomorphic processes responsible for their formation. These should include the influence of both geology and climate.
3. Examples of coastal management showing how each affects geomorphic processes and the coastal landscape.
4. How sustainable are the examples of coastal management?
5. A summary slide listing the distinctive aspects of your coastline.
The learners learning resource should cover the whole of 3.2b for the coastal landscape, complete with sufficient specific case study detail. Coastal areas such as Holderness are well-resourced for a task such as this with resource sheets such as GeoActive Online, number 407, entitled ‘Holderness Coastal Management: an Update’’ is an example of a good starting as are the following resources:
- A brief overview of coastal erosion of the Holderness to Spurn Head coast
- A good clip to illustrate influence of geology and climate
- Some more detailed information on coastal processes and management
- Coastal processes
The aim of this activity is to examine the range of human activities impacting upon the coastal landscape case study.
- This task will require knowledge of key terms such as hard and soft engineering and access to additional resources providing information about coastal defence schemes.
- Learner Resource 5 provides a grid for the learner to complete having identified a range of human activities that impact on a coastline, their advantages and disadvantages for the landscape and effect on geomorphic processes.
- Page 28 of the 2010 Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) Non Technical Summary provides an overview of the SMP which can be discussed as a class. Learners can use the SMP to investigate how different sections of the coastline are being managed e.g. Policy Unit A versus Policy Unit F. Learners can then consider “how human activity, including management, work in combination with geomorphic processes to impact the landscape?”.
Learners examine how meanders form, and their resultant characteristics.
Learners start by watching the video clip in the Weblink and are then given a set of cards (made from Learner Resource 6 - the small set). They should use the cards and the video clip to draw a labelled diagram (or series of diagrams) to show meander formation and characteristics. The video clip could be played again so that they can check their ideas are correct. Then, the larger set of cards (also in Learner Resource 6) could be used as a class consolidation activity where students are asked to come and stick the words onto the correct place on a large image of a meander on the board (either a photo or diagram).
In this activity, learners examine the formation and characteristics of a waterfall; ‘High Force’ on the River Tees. This activity uses High Force waterfall to explore the processes that create this landform.
This activity can be used when studying the processes that shape physical landscapes (3.2.a) and/or when studying a specific river basin (the Tees) as a case study (3.2.b). Learners watch the video clip once and are then given the question sheet (Learner Resource 7). Learners answer as many questions as they can from memory, then the video clip should be played again so that they can fill in the blanks. This would then be a good point to review the formation of waterfalls and the characteristics of High Force.
In this activity, learners use OS maps to help them understand more about the River Tees, which could make a good case study of a river basin in the UK.
For this task, learners will need a copy of Learner Resource 8 (a task sheet) and access to an OS map of the Tees basin, either a paper or online version (see links). You will need sections of OS map sheets NZ and NY. Learners work through the mapping tasks in order to become more familiar with the landforms, geomorphic processes and human activity in the area. With any of the mapping facilities in the Weblinks, students can just find a feature and click on it to find the accurate grid reference.
To complete this activity learners should be encouraged to explore the Weblinks (or pages could be printed from the links) in order to build up a fact file about the River Tees basin.
Learners should try to incorporate all of the following onto one sheet of A3 paper:
- A sketch map of the location and extent of the Tees Basin and river, including significant places in the area.
- Some key facts about the basin e.g. size, geology, history, land use, and relief.
- A description of how the river changes from source to mouth, with reference to both the valley and the channel, landforms and processes.
- A ‘focus’ on one distinctive landform including facts about it, how it formed, and how it may change in the future.
- Management of the Tees e.g. water supply modifications or flood protection measures.
Learner Resource 10 can be used in many ways to help consolidate learning about rivers. It consists of a card sort of key rivers terms.
Learners could be asked to do the following:
- Match up the words to their correct definition
- Divide the cards into landforms and processes
- Choose 2/3/4/5 of the words and write a sentence or paragraph using all of them
- Divide the group of cards into categories, choosing a suitable title for each.
These tasks are particularly useful as a revision exercise.
• Working in pairs learners will need to sit back to back and decide who is A and who is B.
• A is given Image 1 from Learner Resource 11 and B is given a plain piece of paper. A now needs to describe the image to B from Learner Resource 11, whose aim is to create an exact replica (size, shape and detail with annotations) explaining the formation of the landform. A is not allowed to draw in the air with their fingers or look at B’s drawing. B can ask as many questions to A throughout the activity as they need. The focus should be on both what the landform looks like and the processes behind its creation. When the time is up get learners to compare and contrast the original image with their own drawing and ask the following questions:
- What did you do well?
- What do you need to add to improve your image?
Repeat the activity with image 2, swapping the roles of A and B so each get a chance to describe and draw.
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