Multi-Store Model of Memory
Navigate to resources by choosing units within one of the unit groups shown below.
Delivery guides are designed to represent a body of knowledge about teaching a particular topic and contain:
- Content: A clear outline of the content covered by the delivery guide;
- Thinking Conceptually: Expert guidance on the key concepts involved, common difficulties students may have, approaches to teaching that can help students understand these concepts and how this topic links conceptually to other areas of the subject;
- Thinking Contextually: A range of suggested teaching activities using a variety of themes so that different activities can be selected which best suit particular classes, learning styles or teaching approaches.
Sensory store; short term memory and long term memory
Differences between stores in terms of duration
Differences between stores in terms of capacity
Differences between stores in terms of types of encoding
Criticism of the model including rehearsal verses meaning
The Multi-Store Model of Memory Research Study – an example of the impact, on behaviour, of neurological damage - Wilson, Kopelman and Kapur (2008): Prominent and persistent loss of past awareness in amnesia: delusion, impaired consciousness or coping strategy (the Clive Wearing study).
This sub topic focusses on the Multi-Store model of Memory as an explanation of how memory works. It focuses on each separate and distinct store; how information passes through each store; how much information each can hold and how long it can be held there. This poses an opportunity for learners to participate in lots of mini practical experiments as well as evaluative issues surrounding the use of the experimental method.
Common misconceptions or difficulties learners may have:
Learners may confuse capacity and duration or the order of the stores. Using diagrams or other representations can help learners to plan more detailed descriptions and aid recall.
Case studies can be difficult to grasp given the lengthy descriptions. There are some excellent documentaries (both long and short) on Clive Wearing on YouTube.
Conceptual links to other areas of the specification – useful ways to approach this topic to set learners up for topics later in the course:
This subtopic provides a good opportunity to embed research methods; particularly the experimental method. Learners can participate in some replication experiments to facilitate their understanding of the model and design their own – useful for studies and applications in psychology component 1, Section D.
The case study method as a method used in psychology can also be explored here.
Numerous practical activities can be carried out or designed facilitating learners understanding of how research is conducted in psychology. There are some good interactive web sites that provide all the instructions and materials for these to be done with ease.
There are lots of YouTube clips on both short term and long term memory and Clive Wearing. Due to the amount of information found in case studies, using novel ways, such a news reporting or writing a fictitious face book page for a classroom display, can aid learning and recall.
This website gives the images needed to conduct a short term memory test. Can be used with learners to support the capacity of short term memory.
Learners could write this up as a mini practical experiment as a link to research methods.
Practical activity – replicate Miller’s (1956) magic number 7 +/- 2 digit span memory experiment to demonstrate the capacity of short term memory. This can also be used to demonstrate ‘chunking’.
Present learners with a series of numbers, then get them to count from 10 to 1 out loud. Ask learners to recall the numbers in the correct order. Ask learners why they found this difficult. Use to illustrate the role of attention to allow information to pass from sensory memory to short term memory and rehearsal from short term memory to long term memory
Practical activity – replicate Peterson and Peterson (1959). Present learners with trigrams (nonsense syllables) and ask them to recall them accurately and in order.
There is an opportunity to link to research methods here. Learners could design their own experiment to investigate the duration/capacity or how information is encoded in short term memory. For example, using pictures in place of letters/numbers to see how this affects recall.
A summary sheet providing an overview of how information is encoded, and the capacity, and duration of short term and long term memory.
As differentiation, the worksheet could be edited to remove the information and learners could be asked to research / complete it independently.
A fill in the missing word worksheet. Could be used alongside teaching the model or as a revision exercise.
As differentiation and /or for revision, the word list could be removed.
Practical activity – replicate Primacy – Recency Effect for example; Murdock (1962). Learners are presented with a list of words that vary in length and free recall them. Results can be plotted onto a graph to see if the serial position effect is replicated. Refer to the web link for a detailed description.
There is an opportunity to link analysing research here (graphs) where learners can practice their skill at drawing graphs and labelling them correctly.
Alternatively, learners could work in groups with each group taking a different proportion of the study then each group contributes their knowledge to the whole class using the jigsaw technique.
For differentiation, the more complex parts of the study can be allocated to the more able learners.
OCR’s resources are provided to support the teaching of OCR specifications, but in no way constitute an endorsed teaching method that is required by the Board and the decision to use them lies with the individual teacher. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the content, OCR cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions within these resources. We update our resources on a regular basis, so please check the OCR website to ensure you have the most up to date version.
© OCR 2017 - This resource may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the OCR logo and this message remain intact and OCR is acknowledged as the originator of this work.